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Glossary of Performance Terminology

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The practice of getting investing, allocating and applying organizational resources for optimal results.  It is
generally viewed as consisting on the disciplines of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, and
motivating.  Management is about getting things done in organizations to accomplish desired goals and objectives.
Management by Objectives (MBO)              
A management process for achieving organizational goals involving mutual involvement of management
and subordinates in planning, decision-making, problem-solving and work evaluation.  The intent of MBO
is that when employees are involved in goal setting and the choosing the course of action, they will be more likely
to fulfill their responsibilities.
Management Development                     
A planned, long-term development process incorporating both formal and informal elements for creating and
enhancing the competences of managers and potential managers. Management development programs within
an organization work to identify and recruit potential managers, and to develop their knowledge and skills to meet
organizational needs.  Development activities may include short courses, management education programs,
management training, coaching, and mentoring.
A person responsible for planning and executing a specific business function or directing and monitoring the work
of one or more individuals focused on a particular task or function within an organization.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs            
A motivational theory that proposes humans are motivated by the desire to satisfy by five sequential levels of needs
beginning with physiological needs followed successively by security, social, self-esteem and self-fulfillment needs.
Mental Model                      
A representation of one's thinking process for understanding and dealing with real, hypothetical or imaginary
A particular manner or style of doing something,  A technique.
A developmental method in which wise and trusted counselor or teacher, usually a senior more experienced 
individual is assigned to provide advice, counsel, guidance and support as well as concern for his/her welfare to a
new or less proficient member (protégé) of  the organization. The mentor's role is to guide, instruct, encourage, and 
correct the protégé. The protégé's  responsibility is to listen to and apply instruction and constructive criticism in
order to improve performance. 
Any communication between individuals consisting of a sender and one or more receivers 
A general manner or style of doing something. A technique. 
Term used to describe a standard used to represent an organization’s progress in a particular aspect of its
operation.  Metrics can either be quantitative (e.g., number of units produced) or qualitative 
(e.g., workers’ initiative levels).
Meyers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator 
Personality typing instrument based on the personality types theory of psychologist Carl Jung that classifies
personalities into elements of four basic independent parameters: (1) Introversion or Extroversion, (2) Sensing
or Intuition, (3) Thinking or Feeling, (4) Judging or Perceiving.
Close, detailed and often de-motivating scrutiny by a supervisor of a worker's duties and responsibilities on
a continuing basis.
Mission Statement                              
A brief description of an individual or organization's fundamental purpose.
An easily retained memory/learning aid such as a word or short phrase that can be quickly associated with the
data that is to be recalled to mind.
Model (Noun)                      
A simplified representation of a phenomenon for the purpose of study and understanding. Also a desirable
depiction of such phenomenon.
Model (Verb)                       
A behavioral expression of an ability, attitude or attribute.
A specific self-contained component learning unit of a training program that along with other such component 
segments comprises a complete course of education.
Collective feeling, attitude or spirit of a work group as exhibited by the level of the individuals' confidence, 
cheerfulness, loyalty, discipline, and willingness to perform assigned tasks.
The act of influencing others to undertake a specific action. One can motivate another either by applying
external motivating factors (external motivation) or by aligning the desired specific action with an individual's 
internal desires for the satisfaction and fulfillment of specific needs (internal motivation)
(see needs theory).                                                            
The degree of drive, persistence and intensity of effort expended by an individual to achieve a specific outcome
intended to satisfy a human need.  It is that which moves a person to take action.
Motivation (Internal)           
Motivation arising from an individual's unobservable internal desires for the satisfaction and fulfillment of specific
needs (see needs theory).  Also known as personal or intrinsic motivation.
Motivation (External)          
Motivation arising from a person's response to external factors or circumstances existing within an individual's
environment.  Also known as extrinsic motivation
Multifunctional Team           
A group of individuals from two or more functional areas within an organization who collaborate by sharing their
respective specialized knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) to solve organizational problems. Also known a
multidisciplinary team.


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